top of page

Impact Assessment

Carbon Footprint

Environmental Impact Assessment

Economic Evaluation

Determing the Cost to Industry of Enviromental Regulation


During the negotiation of international and European environmental regulations, the industry sector typically raises the issue of the cost of compliance. It is often maintained that the cost of complying with environmental regulations restricts business profitability and competitiveness. This paper provides an overview of the cost of compliance by considering the arguments, strategies and cost estimates that were presented by industry during the negotiations of several different environmental regulations in Europe and North America, and at the global level.

This paper considers the question of how ex ante predictions of the costs of complying with environmental regulations compare with ex postevaluations of actual compliance costs. This paper suggests that the reasons for these differences relate to strategic behaviour by affected parties in the policy formulation stage, problems in anticipating the .influence of the implementation process, difficulties in forecasting the availability of new technological solutions and incentives for firms to reduce the costs of compliance once environmental regulations have been adopted

Estimating the Costs and Benefits of Introducing an New European  Evaporative Emissions Test Procedure


Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle’s fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The report concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 hours and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.


The Neighbourhood

Carbon Footprint of York


The aim of the study is to

determine the carbon footprint

of York residents and show how this varies
throughout the city. The study identifies those York

neighbourhoods which have the greatest potentia to reduce their carbon footprint.





The  Carbon Cost of Christmas


Christmas time is accompanied by seasonal increases in our level of consumption. From eating and drinking to giving and receiving, it is the time of the year when we do things to excess. Unfortunately, it also means we are likely to have a greater impact
on the environment.





Greening the Greys


The over 50s make up an
increasing proportion of the
UK population. Th is report
divides the over 50s into
three distinct groups: baby
boomers (50-64), seniors
(65-74) and elders (75+).
An analysis of the carbon
footprint of each group was
undertaken based on the age
of the head of the household





A Material Flow Analysis and Ecological Footprint of York


The study attempts
to understand the total material requirement of the City of York and then establish the ecological footprint associated with the consumption of these materials.





If we are to make the transition to a more sustainable and low carbon society we need to understand the human impact on the environment as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different policy responses.


My research has involved understanding and quantifiying the carbon footprint of different consumption patterns and policies. I have undertaken economic evaluations of different environmental policy instruments to determine the benefits for society. I have also contributed to the the European Commission's Impact Assessment procedure for policy propsoals.


In addition, I have assessed the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce the environmental impact of different development projects.


A Study to Develop and Implement an overall Strategy for Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment Research in the European Union


The aim of this study was to develop and implement a strategy for EIA/SEA research in order to contribute to the effective implementation of the EIA Directive and to provide the basis for the implementation of SEA in the EU. My responsibilities involved preparing a questionnaire, liaising with leading experts within the field from the Member States, identifying priorities for EIA and SEA research, developing a research strategy for the EU and writing the final report.


An Analysis of Environmental Impact Studies of Installations for the Treatment and Disposal of Toxic and Dangerous Waste in the EU


The aim of the Study was to examine the common approaches and main differences in environmental indicators, impact prediction methods, evaluation criteria, uncertainty analysis methods, risk assessment methods and terminology used in the EIA of installations for the incineration, landfill and chemical treatment of toxic and dangerous waste in the twelve EU Member States. The results of the study will be used to improve the quality of EISs submitted for these types of projects. My responsibilities involved liaising with national government bodies and private organisations in the Member States, analysing a range of EISs for different types of waste treatment/disposal installations and writing the final report.

Background and Context of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Caratti, P., Dalkmann, H., Jilberto, R. (eds)

Analysing Strategic Environmental Assessment: Towards Better Decision-making, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.


 ‘Environmental and Social Aspects of Joint Implementation: Methodologies and Case Study Results in T. Jackson, K. Begg

and S. Parkinson (eds) Flexibility in Climate Change Policy: Making the Kyo7to Mechanism Work  78-110, Earthscan, London.


‘A comparative analysis of EISs submitted under Annex I.9 of Directive 85/337/EEC in Environmental Law Network

International, International Environmental Impact Assessment: European and Comparative Law and Practical Experience, 33-42, Cameron May, London

bottom of page