Scenarios for the European transport sector are used to examine the impact on transboundary air pollution of a range of vehicle emission standards, technologies and demand management measures and to produce estimates of national emissions in the UN/ECE region. This paper demonstrates the possible reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds which could be achieved using different policy in struments.
Towards a Zero Carbon Vision for UK Transport
The aim of this study is to quantify and assess the contributions that different CO2 emission reduction measures can make in assisting the UK to move towards a zero carbon transport sector by 2050. Existing published reports, academic papers and official statistical data have been used to estimate CO2 emissions from the transport sector in 2050 according
to two scenarios: a Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and a Maximum Impact (MI) Scenario in which all feasible interventions for achieving a ‘near zero carbon’ UK transport sector are applied.
Acheiving Low Carbon and Sustainable Transport Systems in Yorkshire and Humber
The study examines and evaluates what measures would be needed to achieve a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from transport in the Yorkshire and Humber region to meet regional targets. It examines the changes in patterns of travel behaviour that can be achieved through the implementation of best practice transport interventions, and modelling the carbon impact of such changes in behaviour using the REAP (Resource and Energy Analysis Programme) model. The study focuses on a number of scenarios of practical, deliverable measures within the scope of regional transport policy that will deliver a reduction in the emissions of carbon dioxide from transport across the region.
Evaporative emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) arise from the vehicle’s fuel system due to changes in ambient and vehicle temperatures, and contribute to urban smog. This paper presents an economic analysis of the societal costs and benefits of implementing a revised European evaporative emission test procedure for petrol vehicles under four scenarios for the period 2015-2040. The report concludes that the most cost-effective option is the implementation of an aggressive purging strategy over 48 hours and improved canister durability (scenario 2+). The average net benefit of implementing this scenario is €146,709,441 at a 6% discount rate. Per vehicle benefits range from €6-9 but when fuel savings benefits are added, total benefits range from €13-18. This is compared to average additional cost per vehicle of €9.